雅思如何备考 雅思阅读技巧大解析 助你早日屠鸭
发布者：北雅国际英语 发布时间：2020-01-19 13:41
阅读话题主要分为人文社科类（历史、语言等）和自然科学类（生物、化学等）。在明确了这些话题之后，必要的工作就是要寻找这些话题的背景文章。阅读A类文章大多选自国外人文类、经济类和科学类的知名报纸、杂志，如经济学人The Economist，卫报The Guardian，美国国家地理杂志National Geography, New Scientist，Science, Popular Science 和Nature等。
今天就带大家一起来精读一段来自BBC的历史类文章。这类文章通常按照时间线索进行描述。同时，由于其历史属性，时态通常是过去式。BBC的该篇文章讲述了在全欧第二大球场---温布利球场（Wembley Stadium）建造前，英国的铁路大亨Edward Watkin有感于法国巴黎塞纳河畔（River Seine）埃菲尔铁塔（Eiffel Tower）的建造，也有了一个宏伟的计划（a grand scheme）：在英国伦敦的温布利----现今赫赫有名的温布利球场（Wembley Stadium）的所在位置---建造一座具有划时代意义的世界第一高楼。
Sir Edward wanted Great Britain to have an equivalent. But, instead of building a rival tower in central London, he believed a marsh> His tower was meant to be the beacon for his new suburban paradise, comfortable homes set in pleasant parklands just a 12 minute train ride from Baker Street station. The poor would be able to swap the over-crowded disease-infested streets of central London for healthy country air. His park would also encourage city-dwellers to enjoy days out on his railway, with a trip up the tower being the icing on the cake.
Wembley Stadium 温布利大球场是英格兰国家足球场，建于1923年，位于英国伦敦，是英格兰国家队以及英格兰国内杯赛的决赛场地。由于它独特的设计----有一个可以移动的伸展屋顶，因而也是全世界最大的可封顶式球场。
Metropolitan Railway 伦敦大都会铁路，世界上最早的城市地铁系统。由于当时电力尚未普及，使用的是蒸汽机车作为牵引。再加上排风不畅，乘客常常感到烟熏气闷，有的人甚至昏倒在地铁里。尽管如此，伦敦市民甚至皇亲显贵们都争相乘坐这种地下列车。
metropolitan n./adj. 大都会，大城市
paradise n.天堂；(某类活动或某类人的) 完美去处
icing on the cake
ice 作动词，在烘焙中，表达在蛋糕上加糖霜。Icing on the cake字面意思是在蛋糕上撒糖衣，可以译为中文的“锦上添花” 。在段落中，作者表达了这位铁路大亨（railway magnate）并不想把他理想中的媲美埃菲尔铁塔（an equivalent to the Eiffel Tower）的世界第一大楼建造在市中心地段(central London)，而是计划建造在市郊地区（outskirts），既可以成为在市郊的完美去处（suburban paradise）,又可以让市民们（city-dwellers）搭坐他的铁路系统（railway）去他要建的大楼（tower），这么做不失为一举两得，锦上添花（being the icing on the cake）。
首句Sir Edward wanted Great Britain to have an equivalent.（他希望英国也有一座类似于埃菲尔铁塔Eiffel Tower般具有划时代意义的建筑）承接了上文关于埃菲尔铁塔信息的介绍，而第二句以转折词But，引出了这段的中心：But, instead of building a rival tower in central London, he believed a marsh on the city's outskirts would be the perfect spot。他希望选址在伦敦郊区（outskirts）的沼泽湿地（mash），而不是在伦敦市中心（central London）建造和Eiffel Tower相媲美的建筑（rival tower）。随后包含大量数据、地点、人物细节信息的句子解释说明了此举的意义，作为论据论证了中心句he believed a marsh on the city's outskirts would be the perfect spot。
He had bought 280 acres of land in the Wembley area as part of his grand scheme to build an entire new community, connected to the city of London by the Metropolitan Railway, of which he had been chairman since 1872.
句子解构：主句He had bought 280 acres of land in the Wembley area as part of his grand scheme to build an entire new community过去分词短语connected to the city of London by the Metropolitan Railway作状语，表达了他选址在郊区，可以通过大都会铁路by the Metropolitan Railway把Wembley area和the city of London 相连（connect to）。
非限制性定语从句of which he had been chairman since 1872 形容修饰了逗号前的Metropolitan Railway。
最后，文末给大家附上了全文（源自Watkin’s Wembley Folly: London’s “Eiffel Tower”That Never Was， www.bbc.co.uk）。
Before Wembley got its world famous football stadium, a Victorian railway magnate had even grander plans to turn the borough's marshy fields into London's answer to the Eiffel Tower.
Sir Edward Watkin's plan was simple but ambitious - build the tallest structure in the world. The railway magnate had been inspired by the 984ft (300m) tall Eiffel Tower, which was unveiled beside the River Seine in 1889. He wanted London to have one of its own.
"Like other Victorian men of the era he wanted to make his impact on the world," said Jason Sayer, of the London School of Architecture. "The tower was to be his legacy."
The Eiffel Tower was the world's tallest man-made structure when construction finished in 1889. Initially derided by some for being a monstrous addition to the city's fine architecture, it went on to become a global tourist attraction, recouping its £260,000 construction costs in the first seven months and becoming the perennial back drop for Parisian postcards.
Sir Edward wanted Great Britain to have an equivalent. But, instead of building a rival tower in central London, he believed a marsh on the city's outskirts would be the perfect spot.He had bought 280 acres of land in the Wembley area as part of his grand scheme to build an entire new community, connected to the city of London by the Metropolitan Railway, of which he had been chairman since 1872. His tower was meant to be the beacon for his new suburban paradise, comfortable homes set in pleasant parklands just a 12 minute train ride from Baker Street station. The poor would be able to swap the over-crowded disease-infested streets of central London for healthy country air. His park would also encourage city-dwellers to enjoy days out on his railway, with a trip up the tower being the icing on the cake.
"There was a lot of British pride going around at the time and he wanted to typify the country's global achievements," Mr Sayer said. "Part of it was down to him trying to do some public good, although how much the public needs a tower is debatable, but mostly it was down to his own ego."
His park, which included a boating lake, waterfall and various sporting grounds, opened in May 1894 and quickly became popular with some 100,000 visitors in its first few months. Those ambling lazily around the large green gardens would have heard the heavy clanking of metal as work continued on Sir Edward's tower.
But work was not going well. It had been designed by the London architects Stewart, McLaren and Dunn, who had seen off 67 competitors for the 500 Guinea prize.
Sir Edward had actually approached Gustave Eiffel to take on his tower, but the architect of the Parisian masterpiece politely declined, fearing his compatriots might think him "not so good a Frenchman as I hope I am" if he helped the English build a bigger tower than France's. Some of the designs had been fantastical and patently impractical, if not impossible. One was a 2,000ft high tower shaped like a multi-tiered wedding cake with a working railway spiralling up it. Another was described as an "aerial colony" complete with hanging vegetable gardens and a scale replica of the Great Pyramid on its summit. Stewart, McLaren and Dunn's winning entry closely resembled the Eiffel Tower, although it was made of steel as opposed to iron and, at 1,150ft (350m), was some 165ft (50m) taller than the Parisian centrepiece. It was to feature a 90-bedroom hotel, restaurant, theatre, shops, Turkish baths, winter gardens and promenades, as well as a weather station and observatory at the top.
But Wembley was the wrong place for such a project for two main reasons. Firstly, the ground was muddy and marshy and prone to subsidence. The first stage of the tower, consisting of four giant legs supporting a plateau 155ft (47m) in the air, was completed a short while after the park's opening. But it was soon developing an ominous lean that was even more pronounced two years later. Secondly, it was too far from central London. "Wembley was not the equivalent of the location of the Eiffel Tower to put it mildly," said Christopher Costelloe, director of the Victorian Society. "People would get there and find there was not much to see, certainly no panoramic view of London. "If he had built it in Hyde Park it would probably have been a roaring success." Sir Edward's hopes that his even partially built tower would enjoy the same immediate success as the Eiffel Tower were quickly dashed. Public interest in it waned with visitors donating only £27,000 of the £220,000 required. Sir Edward ploughed £100,000 of his own money into it, but by the end of 1894, work had ceased. In a bid to reignite public excitement, lifts were installed in 1896 to allow people to get up to the platform. However, during its first six months only 18,500 people paid to do so. The tower once mooted to be named after Queen Victoria became known instead as the "Shareholders' Dismay", "London Stump" and "Watkin's Folly". Sir Edward, who had also made an ill-fated attempt to dig a Channel tunnel in the 1880s, died in 1901. The following year his much-vaunted tower was closed to the public and in 1906 it was finally torn down.
Though Sir Edward's tower was a failure, his vision for Wembley was not. The park's leisure facilities proved popular and became a venue for large-scale gatherings. Wembley's place in the list of global icons would be assured when, in 1923, a magnificent new stadium, complete with twin towers, opened to host the FA Cup final between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United. In 2002, when the stadium was torn down to be replaced by another landmark ground, workmen found large concrete foundations beneath the pitch. They were the first and last pieces of London's answer to the Eiffel Tower.