雅思写作素材分享|人口流动的原因和影响（causes and effects of geographic mobility）
发布者：北雅国际英语 发布时间：2020-05-14 10:09
Geographic mobility is the measure of how populations and goods move over time. Geographic mobility, population mobility, or more simply mobility is also a statistic that measures migration within a population.
Most theoretical models attribute the desire to relocate to the impact of wages and salary and employment on personal expected earnings. The prospect of gainful employment in another region leads to movement to capitalize on new opportunities and resources unavailable in the original community. Perceptions, gaps in prospective incomes, availability of accurate information, and geographic distance all play a part in the decision to migrate.
Social forces can also foster individual geographic mobility. Support from the community can increase the probability of relocation—it has been shown that the chances of migration in India improve when groups of houses from the same sub-caste all decide to move together. Demographically, research shows that one's level of education tends to correlate to higher mobility, especially among university graduates. Youth and a lack of a family or children correlate to increased mobility too, with the peak in mobility occurring in the mid to late 20s for populations surveyed in Europe.
Geographical mobility of labor allows the labor supply to respond to regional disparities, limiting economic inefficiencies. A mobile population allows a region to shed workers when jobs are scarce and gives those workers the opportunity seek employment elsewhere where opportunities might be better. Labor mobility theoretically leads to a more balanced and economically efficient distribution of jobs and resources overall. Individual employees can better match their skills to potential jobs on the open job market. While an increase in geographic mobility increases overall economic efficiency, the increased competition for jobs on the local level in otherwise prosperous regions could lead to higher unemployment than before the migration.
Geographic mobility allows for remittances from distant family members back to support local needs. Loans and transfers can flow back from migrated members of a community to sustain those who remain behind. Increasing long range personal mobility tends to lead to geographic expansion of an individual's support network. Long distance connections require more time to visit and minimizes the occurrence of unplanned social interaction. Increased mobility can decrease an individual's attachment to a local community and weaken local support networks. People often turn to information technology to maintain connections across distance, strengthening distance relationships and allowing people to pursue career opportunities despite geographic distance from a partner.
Increased geographic mobility increases the depth and quality of cultural exchange between communities. Travel and cooperation bring people together across cultural divides and facilitate the trade of customs and ideas. New community members bring unique talents and skills that can improve overall services and bring additional opportunity to an area. On the other hand, accelerated cultural exchange can dilute existing customs and cause social friction between competing immigrating populations too. Residents in communities with a large percentage of highly mobile occupants also worry about long term social cohesion. Rapid turnover can lead to cultural isolation and sometimes prevents neighbors from building close cohesive relationships.
gainful employment 有收益的职业
capitalize on new opportunities 利用新机会
geographic distance 地理上的距离
social forces 社会力量
geographic mobility 地理流动性
population mobility 人口流动性
cause social friction 引起社会摩擦
about long term social cohesion 关于长期社会凝聚力
increased mobility 增加机动性
regional disparities 区域差异
maintain connections 保持连接
across cultural divides 跨越文化鸿沟
accelerated cultural exchange 加速文化交流
jobs are scarce 工作机会稀少
the open job market 开放的就业市场
distant family members 远亲
long range personal mobility 远距离个人机动性
support network 支持网络
attachment to a local community 对当地社区的依恋
building close cohesive relationships 建立紧密的内聚关系