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托福阅读句子插入题的答题策略及例题解析!

发布者:北雅国际英语 发布时间:2022-05-27 10:26

众所周知,托福阅读中存在着一种比较特殊的题型——插入题。其实该题型的宗旨就是考查同学们对句子关系的判断与分析能力,需要结合上下文,结合逻辑,选择正确的位置。这类题型是比较有解题技巧的代表,帮助大家在现有的水平基础上更高效地做题,既能缩短做题时间,也能大幅提升做题准确率。


下面和大家一起来分享下插入题的解题和实操。主要分为三个部分:考查重点、解题思路以及例题解析。 帮助大家扫清托福疑难杂症,精准有效的备考,取得好成绩。


01

Part 1:考查重点


句子理解(同近义)


句间逻辑和指代关系


段落结构


根据上面的考点,总结出了如下的对应解题思路。


一、解题思路三部曲


首先,从插入题给出句子入手,找出有逻辑、结构、代词或重复性意思的词汇或词组。


再者,有重点的根据这些考点回原文用语义来对应。


最后,做完需要联系上下文检验。


二、Part 2: 解题思路


“潜规则”——由概括到细节,由抽象到具体,由总到分。


理解问题中的句子(不是全文)


衔接词


◆ 逻辑——转折/条件/因果/让步等


◆ 结构或顺序——first/on one hand/consequently


代词和冠词(The)


◆ 人称代词He/She/They


◆ 指示代词 This/That/Those/These


◆ 不定代词 some/other /another


◆ 其他 such,it


重复性的词汇或词组   again/once more


代入原文检验


三、Part 3: 例题解析

例1解析

# 例1 #

Reliance on trade had several important consequences. Production was generally in the hands of skilled individual artisans doing piecework under the tutelage of a master who was also the shop owner. In these shops differences of rank were blurred as artisans and masters labored side by side in the same modest establishment, were usually members of the same guild and religious sect, lived in the same neighborhoods, and often had assumed (or real) kinship relationships. The worker was bound to the master by a mutual contract that either one could repudiate, and the relationship was conceptualized as one of partnership. (TPO-16 Passage 1 Paragraph2)


Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.


For one thing, it created a demand for finished goods to be sold both locally and abroad.


题目解析:

根据解题思路,此题有for one thing结构性词组和it代词,所以需要重点放在文章考前位置来寻找,因为for on thing是首先的意思,给我们位置暗示。然后it刚好指代了A选项前面的Reliance on trade。前面说贸易,我们当句就衔接上了贸易可以创造商品销售的需求。如果放B出,当句it往前没法指代,且后句中these shops和插入句对不上,但是和前面的shop owner能够对应上。这题重点考查了结构性的词和代词的综合考点。


例2解析

# 例2 #

Agriculture developed slowly among populations that had an extensive knowledge of plants and animals. Changing from hunting and gathering to agriculture had no immediate advantages. To start with, it forced the population to abandon the nomad's life and became sedentary, to develop methods of storage and, often, systems of irrigation. While hunter-gatherers always had the option of moving elsewhere when the resources were exhausted, this became more difficult with farming. Furthermore, as the archaeological record shows, the state of health of agriculturalists was worse than that of their contemporary hunter-gatherers.(TPO-21 Passage 2 Paragraph 7):


Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.


Because humans had built up this knowledge as hunter-gatherers, it is logical to conclude that over time they would have become extremely efficient.


题目解析:

根据解题思路,Because是因果逻辑关系词,结构在it is logical后面引导的内容,没有发挥多大暗示作用。但是,指示代词this后面指代的knowledge明显在段落中有且仅有一处也就是A选项前面的intensive knowledge。所以本题重点考查了代词的考点。


例3解析

# 例3 #

Film analysis of the infant's responses, heart and respiration rate monitors, and non-nutritive sucking devices are used as effective tools in understanding infant perception. Film analysis permits researchers to carefully study the infant's responses over and over and in slow motion. Precise measurements can be made of the length and frequency of the infant's attention between two stimuli. Heart and respiration monitors provide the investigator with the number of heartbeats or breaths taken when a new stimulus is presented. Numerical increases are used as quantifiable indicators of heightened interest in the new stimulus. Increases in nonnutritive sucking were first used as an assessment measure by researchers in 1969. (TPO-13 Passage 3 Paragraph 3)


Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.


The repetition allows researchers to observe the infant's behavior until they reach agreement about the presence and the degree of the infant's response.


题目解析:


根据解题方法,定冠词the往往和代词类似,指代前文出现过内容。Repetition在段落中没有一模一样的词,但是被准确选项B前面的over and over近义替换了,且插入句中的the infant’s behavior 也和前面的the infants’ response对应上了。


例4解析

# 例4 #

Modern architectural forms generally have three separate components comparable to elements of the human body;a supporting skeleton or frame, an outer skin enclosing the interior spaces, and equipment, similar to the body’s vital organs and systems. The equipment includes plumbing, electrical wiring, hot water, and air-conditioning. Of course in early architecture—such as igloos and adobe structures—there was no such equipment, and the skeleton and skin were often one. (TPO-3 Passage 1 Paragraph 5: )


Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.


However, some modern architectural designs, such as those using folded plates of concreter or air-inflated structures, are again unifying skeleton and skin.


题目解析:


根据解题思路,此题出现了however逻辑词,some不定代词和again重复词汇的考点。准确选项为D。插入句的however引导的是现代建筑设计和D前面的早期建筑形成了语义对象上的转折。Again后面的统一,结合了骨骼和皮肤在D前面有直接对应。Some不定代词没有发挥太大作用,这是一道综合考点的题。


例5解析

# 例5 #

It is thought that the facial pits or pit organs on the head of some snakes are specialized infrared(heat) receptors. When a rattlesnake strikes, the direction of the strike seems to be guided by the infrared radiation from its prey. A rattlesnake strikes only at warm-blooded prey, and when the prey is dead and at room temperature, the snake will not strike. However, a blindfolded snake strikes correctly at a dead rat that is pulled across the cage, provided the rat is warmer than the surroundings.(TPO 65 Passage 1)


Look at the four squares that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.


"Infrared radiation can be perceived directly by a few animals that have specialized sense organs that respond to this type of radiation."


题目解析:


此题并没有出现前面几天比较明显的逻辑词,结构或顺序性的词,也没有代词和冠词。那应该如何去解题呢?别忘记了,我们还有个做题的浅规则—由抽象到具体,由概况到细节。准确选项是A,因为插入句中的a few animals对应上A选项后面的some snakes, 也能够对应上B选项后面的rattlesnakes, 是不是越来越具体了?然后插入句中的specialized sense organs对应上A后面的facial pit or pit organ。


以上就是今天要和大家分享的插入题的解题思路和例题中的实际运用。


希望同学们课后多运用里面的考点,课后针对性的进行练习。大大地提分,早日考出理想的托福成绩!

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